# general chemistry

## The Name(ing) Game

Cheryl Hogue’s recent piece entitled “Naming What’s in Cleaning Products” caught my attention earlier this past weekend (C&EN, February 23, 2009).  Cheryl does a great job covering the interface of chemistry and the environment—hitting the high points while remaining concise—and the brief article in question is no exception.  However, the issue at hand was rather concerning.

In a nutshell, activists from an Oakland-based firm called EarthJustice recently filed a lawsuit in New York State demanding that several manufacturers/distributors disclose ingredients on the label of their household chemical products (detergents, cleaning agents, etc.).  Companies named in the lawsuit include Church & Dwight, Colgate-Palmolive, Procter & Gamble and Reckitt Benckiser.  The suit accuses manufacturers of failing to comply with a New York law that was enacted over 30 years ago.  The legislation at issue was passed in 1976 and makes two specific requirements.  First, the law essentially bans the presence of phosphates and nitrilotriacetic acid in household chemicals sold within New York State.  Second, the law requires household chemical manufacturers to stamp a list of ingredients onto the labels of their products.  From what I understand, this act was implemented to protect the overall environment of New York State (from urban areas to surrounding watersheds).  Ultimately, EarthJustice claims that forcing companies to comply with the law purportedly will increase public awareness, which, in turn, will help the environment

The lead attorney for EarthJustice, Keri Powell, made this argument to C&EN:

“People deserve to know whether the products they use to wash their dishes, launder their clothes, and clean their homes could be harmful.”

I’m skeptical of this argument/lawsuit for a couple of reasons.  First, if this law has been dormant for the past 30 years, why is EarthJustice now pushing the issue?  Was New York State asleep at the wheel?  Isn’t this something that should’ve been handled by the EPA?  I realize environmental awareness is a hot topic and a popular vehicle for political action.  While the act of suing over labels to protect the environment is (in my mind) illogical, I am troubled over whether the issue is truly legitimate or a way for an unbiased organization to grind a political act (yes, I’m being cynical and possibly paranoid).

Second, and more concerning, Ms. Powell (and her colleagues at EarthJustice) assumes that proper labeling will, in fact, increase public knowledge.  Her assumption is entirely conditional (certainly not sufficient) on whether or not a reasonable consumer would understand what they read.  Example: my mother is obsessed with the product Goof Off and has two cans of it on hand at any given time.  However, if Goof Off was labeled with its ingredients, she couldn’t tell you the first thing about xylene (the main chemical in Goof Off).  It took her strapping, young (and most definitely handsome) son to explain the potential risks of using such a product.

Don’t get me wrong.  My diverse background in hard science has taught me two very important lessons: learn as much as you possibly can and label everything.  Consumer chemical awareness requires the same conditions, and simply forcing a company to slap a label on something doesn’t solve the problem.  In my mind, the issue of chemical awareness is similar to the “ban dihyrogen monoxide” prank conducted a few years back.  Without education (i.e. learning what the chemicals names actually mean), this proposed labeling crusade is largely irrelevant.

Furthermore, chemical information is readily available (assuming you or your public library has access to the internet).  While there are a few exceptions, every chemical product (including those used at home) must have an MSDS, which can be found online.  Every MSDS identifies the chief ingredients in said product.  Granted, MSDS’s were created for the purposes of right-to-know information in industrial/commercial settings.  But, in my opinion, if John Q. Consumer can read a label, he can certainly read an MSDS.

I salute EarthJustice for all the work they’ve done to protect America’s environment.  Their commitment to public interest is genuine and deserves applause.  However, I think they are barking up the wrong tree with this lawsuit—dragging a whole bunch of companies through expensive court process to get something to happen that’s relevance is moot (at best).  My solution?  Shift the focus.  For example, serve the public’s interest by teaching them how to access/read/interpret chemical information.  Or educate the public on how phosphates are detrimental to the environment.  Lobby politicians to entirely ban certain household chemicals in the state (beyond the ppm limits currently set).

Let’s assume EarthJustice wins the lawsuit.  What happens next?  Maybe it’s me, but I don’t see an end game in sight.

P.S. In addition to C&ENews, this story has been picked up by Scientific American, the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

By March 6, 2009 13 comments

## The Return of Breaking Bad

Good news (nerds alike)!  In an attempt to combat early-morning insomnia, I was flipping through the channels and saw a commercial for the new season of Breaking Bad.  Having fallen victim to last years writer strike, the show was cut at 7 episodes with no indication whether it would get picked up.  Fortunately, the second season of Breaking Bad premieres March 8 (10 EST/9 CST) on AMC.  For what it’s worth, Comcast is running the whole first season in its On-Demand package.

For those not familiar with the show, Walt White (portrayed by Bryan Cranston) is a high school chemistry teacher in his 50’s recently diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer.  In what appears to be a mid-life crisis, White partners up with a former student to launch a fairly lucrative methamphetamine business.  The show twists and turns through a maze of fundamentally accurate synthetic chemistry (chem-geeks no doubt rejoiced in terms such as “chirality,” “reductive amination” and “titration”) and the street drug business.  While most pilots are pretty rough around the edges, Breaking Bad’s was reasonably tolerable and starts the show off fairly well.

I’ll caution you (should you need it) that the show is quite graphic in some scenes and largely presents an overall sense of dread.

By February 22, 2009 7 comments

## The Periodic Table of Videos

A group of lecturers around Prof. Martyn Poliakoff from the University of Nottingham have compiled this “Periodic Table”, which contains a video of a few minutes for every (!) known element. Sometimes it’s an explosive experiment (e.g., Hydrogen), in other cases they simply show a sample, while giving some information about the element. I must say, I am impressed how they manage to come up with something for all the lanthanoids and actinoids. For Ytterbium, Yttrium, Terbium and Erbium, they even went on a trip to Ytterby (Sweden), the town these elements are named after. A great distraction for rainy days, and also a useful video collection for teaching!

By January 27, 2009 4 comments

## Nitrogen Triiodide Explosion [Photo]

A gorgeous photo of pressure sensitive nitrogen triiodide exploding at 1000 m/s is shown below.

From vastib

The photo was taken in the dark with the camera’s shutter open, and a flash triggered by a pressure sensitive detector.

Apparently this was submitted as part of a manuscript to the Journal of Chemical Education for an undergraduate lab demo measuring how fast the explosion propagates through the material. Unfortunately, it was rejected as too dangerous.

The decomposition reaction is…
$$! 8\text{NI}_3\text{NH}_3 \rightarrow 5\text{N}_2 + 6\text{NH}_4\text{I} + 9\text{I}_2$$

Chemical details on nitrogen triiodide can be found from the MOTM page contribution by Simon Cotton: Nitrogen Triiodide

Note 1: Yes, that is Latex embedded into the blog post.
Note 2: Originally from the Chemistry Reddit: Nitrogen Triiodide Photo

Mitch

By January 19, 2009 2 comments