The Underground Map of the Elements – now with Nh, Mc, Ts & Og



What with the names of the four latest elements being confirmed I thought it time I updated the original Underground Map of the Elements. So here it is resplendent with nihomium, moscovium, organesson and tennessine! Enjoy

Underground map of the elements 2016

Link to PDF version.

By December 3, 2016 7 comments fun

Does stainless steel really get rid of garlic smells? Round 2.


Some time ago we put the old wives’ tale that stainless steel gets rid of garlic whiffs to the test. The results were inconclusive and with hindsight the control probably wasn’t ideal. So we are having another go, this time with the backing of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a consortium of chemistry outreach folk from the Universities of Hull, Sheffield, York, Leeds, Bradford and Huddersfield (the Yorkshire Chemistry Outreach Group).

This is where you come in

We need as many people as possible to perform a simple experiment to test whether stainless steel really is an effective odour remover.

You’ll need: A clove of garlic. A knife. A blindfold. A plastic spoon and a stainless steel table spoon of about the same size.

What to do:

  1. Wash and dry your hands (so they don’t smell of anything to start with).
  2. Slice out a piece of garlic.
  3. Rub the freshly cut garlic between your hands for about 10 seconds.
  4. Under running water, rub one palm with the back of the stainless steel spoon for about 10 seconds. Then rub the other palm with the plastic spoon, again under running water, for 10 seconds (the plastic spoon is our control experiment). Make sure you remember which hand was rubbed with which spoon.
  5. Find a willing volunteer. Ask them to close their eyes or put a blindfold on – with their eyes closed, they are less likely to notice any signals from you about which hand has had what treatment.
  6. Hold a hand under their chin (that way each hand will be the same distance from the test subjects nose) and ask them to smell it. Then do the same with the other hand.
  7. Ask them which hand smelt more strongly of garlic.
  8. Let us know whether one hand smelt more than the other, or whether they smelt the same using this survey below.

What causes the whiff?

Garlic is packed with sulfur-containing chemicals, which are responsible for its characteristic taste and odour. Allicin, in particular, is thought to be the culprit most guilty of making your hands (and breath) pong, but it’s only created when two chemicals react – the enzyme alliinase and a sulfur-containing amino acid called alliin. These are held in separate portions within the cell walls of the garlic clove and only mix when the garlic is squished.

You can try it yourself – a bulb of garlic doesn’t smell of very much at all, but slice into it and smell again. When cells are crushed, the chemical reaction converting alliinase and alliin into allicin is almost instantaneous.

And when allicin degrades, it produces even more smelly sulfurous compounds, including diallyl disulfide. These all contribute to garlic’s characteristic aroma.

The chemistry of garlic.
www.compoundchem.com

How might stainless steel banish the pong?

The scientific data on whether the stainless steel trick actually works to get rid of stinky garlic hands is sketchy – although chemistry tells us that it might well work. Stainless steel is an iron alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium by mass. This layer of chromium is what makes stainless steel less likely to rust, corrode or stain. Chromium forms an oxide when it is in contact with air and water, making it more durable. It’s possible that this oxide layer could help to remove unwanted smells. The idea is that the sulfur-containing chemicals left on your hands after chopping garlic may form a chemical bond to the chromium oxide and cling to the surface of the soap, not to your hands, solving the smell problem. But we don’t really know.

We’ll need plenty of tests if we are going to be sure of our results, otherwise it’s just more anecdote. And we’ll get back to you, to let you know whether it’s worth forking out for stainless steel soap soon.

Over the next few months, we’ll be asking for more help from citizen scientists to check the efficacy of tips that may make flowers live longer, peeling a boiled egg easier and extend the burning time of candles. Check out the Hit or Myth blog to find out more.

The Conversation

Mark Lorch, Professor of Science Communication and Chemistry, University of Hull and Joanna Buckley, Materials chemist and science communicator, University of Sheffield

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

By November 24, 2016 7 comments Uncategorized

Two years in the life of a lab whiteboard

Two years ago my group and I shared a time-lapse video: A Year in the Life of a New Research Lab.  Shortly after, I picked up a new set of markers and directed the camera at our lab whiteboard. We stopped the camera last week and can now share two years in the life of our whiteboard condensed down to a 1 minute video. It contains one photo a day taken at 11:30 am for ~750 days.


 

 

Note: Some photos have been omitted due to inactivity or because there was proprietary information on the board.

By August 3, 2016 0 comments entertainment, fun

Professor Anthony Russell Clarke  1959 – 2016

Anyone who has completed a doctoral thesis will testify to the almost parental like relationship a PhD supervisor has with their students. And so it is with great sadness that I heard my PhD supervisor Professor Anthony Russell Clarke, aged just 57, had passed away this week.

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Tony Clarke. Photo Credit. Emma Cordwell

To his friends, students and colleagues Tony Clarke was chaos incarnate. Anyone who worked with him can testify to the apparent disarray of his lab and life. The humdrum cycle of the working week didn’t impinge on Tony’s habits. For Tony there was no such thing as ‘work/life balance’, there was just Life. Sometimes the most appropriate thing to do with life was to head out to sea on his beloved boat, at other times the lab was the place to be. His wayward lifestyle made Tony a challenging person to work with; society doesn’t care for chaos, it prefers tidy plans, filed reports and scheduled meetings.

And so to many it was incredibly difficult to pinpoint how or why his group and indeed his mind worked so productively. It appeared to the outsider that disorder reigned. In fact true chaos ruled; chaos from which, as in nature itself, beauty and order emerges. Of course something is needed to trigger the emergence of order from a chaotic system. And in Tony’s case the attractor around which order condensed was his unwavering insistence on experimental rigour and reproducibility.

Inspiration, creativity, curiosity; Tony had these in spades. Everyone who ever worked with him couldn’t help but admire his intellect, wit, charm and passion. And so they overlooked, as best they could, his social transgressions. Most of his exasperated superiors let him get on with his research, content with his prolific outputs, the wise garnered his genius. Meanwhile his PhD and post-docs rallied around trying to keep his admin on track by digging out the most important forms and documents hidden in his office’s archaeological filing system (the deeper in a stack, the older the documents). This remained a workable system threatened only by the occasional  tectonic movements that disrupted the order.

Tony was an outstanding scientist. He received a SERC Personal Fellowship at 26, a Lister Fellowship at 36 and a personal chair at 41. Churning out seminal work in enzymology, protein engineering, protein folding and prion disease throughout his career. He retired through ill health at 55 with 183 papers, including 4 in Nature and 2 in Science, and an H-index of 49 under his belt.  But the numbers don’t do his achievements justice, his real legacy are the results of his infectious passion for science. He showed us that curiosity was key, that it was the exploratory process that was the interesting bit. Those that had the honour to work alongside him (for he always treated his charges as equals) are left with a life-long love of discovery. Tony burnt out early (his fondness for cigarette and a liquid diet hardly helped) but those of us whom he took along for the ride will benefit from his energy throughout our lives and careers.

It is perhaps worth noting that within hours of his death the hundreds of people whose lives he touched, spread as they were over decades of scientific discovery and thousands of miles, had all learned of his passing. The “Clarke-collective” had begun to grieve.

The world is a far less interesting place without Tony Clarke. His family, friends, students and colleagues will miss him greatly.

“We are able to find everything in our memory, which is like a dispensary or chemical laboratory in which chance steers our hand sometimes to a soothing drug and sometimes to a dangerous poison” Marcel Proust.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

By July 12, 2016 44 comments Uncategorized